The three branched-chain amino acids are a supplement that have been popular since the 1980s, but are they still suitable for people looking to build muscle mass? This article will help bring you up to speed with the current scientific consensus and specify the scenarios in which BCAAs can have the most significant impact.
In this article, you'll find:
What are BCAAs?
Branched chain amino acids are three essential amino acids that have a chain that branches off to the side, giving them their name. Muscle protein is made up of 20 amino acids — 9 essential and 11 non-essential. Essential amino acids can’t be synthesised by the body and need to be included in your diet. Three of the nine essential amino acids that are known as branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are leucine, isoleucine and valine.
Amino acids are used to build muscle protein and BCAAs are often supplemented to boost muscle growth and improve performance. Leucine is a particularly essential BCAA as it acts as a signal that ‘switches on’ muscle protein synthesis (the process of building muscle).1 BCAAs are found in a variety of high-protein foods. They are also available as a supplement in powder or capsule form.
How do BCAAs work?
Eating a high-protein meal and BCAAs will increase your body’s rate of muscle protein synthesis.2 This is important as you need to be in a positive protein balance to gain muscle. In your body, there’s a continuous muscle protein turnover, with periods of increased muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and periods of muscle protein breakdown (MPB).
If your total muscle protein synthesis exceeds muscle protein breakdown, you will be in a positive protein balance and will gain muscle mass. On the flip side, if MPB exceeds MPS, the overall result will be a loss of muscle.
Using a BCAA supplement can help increase your body’s muscle protein synthesis rates3. This increased synthesis rate will result in a positive protein balance and subsequently increase the likelihood of muscle gain4.
Muscle Hypertrophy AKA increased muscle growth
Due to the impact that the BCAAs have on initiating an increase in MPS rates, BCAA supplements have typically been used to maximise muscle growth. Despite this, the evidence doesn’t support the theory that BCAAs alone can increase muscle hypertrophy.2
The current view in the literature is that BCAAs act as a signal and the building blocks of muscle protein synthesis. However, all the essential amino acids need to be present to sustain MPS rates in a way that will build muscle.2
So, consuming a good whey protein supplement, containing all the essential amino acids and rich in BCAAs, is a much better strategy when looking to optimise muscle gain.
Muscle Soreness and Recovery
Numerous studies have shown that BCAA supplementation has reduced the feeling of muscle soreness following intensive weight training.5,6 Great news to anyone who’s struggled to get up off a chair after a massive leg day!
However, for improving recovery in a way that will affect muscle performance, the effects of BCAAs seem minimal.5,6 For example, a recent study showed no impact on the performance of vertical jump and jump squat tests despite BCAA supplementation.6
To optimise recovery, hitting the right daily calorie and protein totals seem to be the key factors.7
Low Protein Meals
Although there is a lack of evidence to support the use of BCAAs for muscle growth and recovery, BCAA supplementation will provide a benefit to people in certain circumstances.
One of the most significant benefits of supplementing with BCAA powder is how it will ‘rescue’ a meal that’s low in protein.
Research has shown that adding 5g of leucine to a beverage containing 6.25g whey protein had the same effect on muscle protein synthesis as a beverage containing 25g whey protein.3
This can be really helpful if you’re caught in a situation where your food intake is somewhat out of your control. For example, if you’re faced with a hectic day of meetings at work and the only option is the dreaded sandwich buffet.
Having a backup source of BCAAs on hand can help ensure your low-protein meal will still raise muscle protein synthesis rates.
Protein Sources Low in BCAAs
Not all protein sources contain the same amount of BCAAs. Plant-based protein sources such as wheat, hemp and soy have lower BCAA content than protein sources like dairy, eggs, meat, and fish.8
This is particularly relevant for vegetarians, vegans or anyone struggling to include BCAA-rich protein sources in their diet.
While it’s possible to improve your meal’s amino acid profile by mixing up your protein sources, BCAA supplementation can provide a straightforward solution. It can also ensure your vegetarian or vegan meal has the most significant impact on muscle protein synthesis rates.
One of the effects of a high protein diet is the satiety response (feeling of fullness) that protein provides. If you’re struggling to eat enough protein for your health and fitness goals, then supplementing with BCAAs can help ensure that you’re maximising MPS rates.
Research has also shown that altitude-induced hypoxia will suppress appetite.9 For anyone training at altitude, BCAAs can help fight the effects of a reduced appetite by enhancing the impact of the protein in your meals.
When to take BCAAs
There’s evidence to suggest that there’s a saturation point and that MPS rates will return to baseline regardless of the number of amino acids ingested at a particular serving.10 So, a good tactic would be to consume BCAAs at regular intervals throughout the day, alongside meals that are low in protein and BCAAs.
Before and during a workout: BCAAs can be taken before a workout to spark muscle building while you're still working out and to prevent muscle fatigue. One study has shown that muscle fatigue was reduced by 15% by supplementing with BCAAs during a workout.11
After a workout: You can also take BCAAs after a workout to improve your recovery post-workout with studies reporting reduced muscle soreness and better performance in training sessions in the days following supplementation when compared to a placebo.12,13
When taken at mealtimes, the dose of BCAAs will depend on the amount of BCAAs in the meal. However, as a general guide, 3-5g of BCAA will be sufficient to initiate MPS rates.3 To maximise synthesis rates to build muscle, BCAAs should be combined with all the other essential amino acids.
Taking BCAAs is generally safe and the majority of people won't have any side effects.
There are a few conditions where it may not be advisable for you to take BCAAs, so if you have any concerns, then please speak with your doctor before taking.
If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding, it’s not recommended that you take BCAAs. As it is unethical to test on pregnant women, there has not been enough reliable evidence to suggest it is safe to do so.
Take Home Message
Although the evidence shows that ingesting BCAAs without the other essential amino acids isn’t enough to enhance muscle mass, as with most things in the field of sports nutrition, context and relevancy are key.
The current view is that adding BCAAs to a meal with low protein content will help to maximise your body’s muscle protein synthesis rates.
It could also be of benefit to those who struggle to eat enough protein due to the satiating effect of a high protein diet or altitude-induced hypoxia.
What are BCAAs?
BCAAs are the three essential branched chain amino acids, namely leucine, isoleucine and valine.
What are the benefits of BCAAs?
The benefits of taking BCAAs include increased muscle growth, mucle recovery, and benefitting meals which are low in protein.
When should I take BCAAs?
Evidence suggests that the optimal times to take BCAAs are around a workout, so before, during and immediately after your training session.
What dosage of BCAAs should I take?
You should aim to take 3-5g dosages of BCAAs to yield optimal benefits.
What are the side effects of BCAAs?
Taking BCAAs is generally considered safe, however due to a lack of research, it is not recommended to take BCAAs during pregnancy.
Our articles should be used for informational and educational purposes only and are not intended to be taken as medical advice. If you're concerned, consult a health professional before taking dietary supplements or introducing any major changes to your diet.
- Wilkinson DJ, Hossain T, Hill DS, Phillips BE, Crossland H, Williams J,… Atherton PJ. (2013). Effects of leucine and its metabolite B-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on human skeletal muscle protein metabolism. J Physiol 2013. 1;591(11):2911-23
- Jackman SR, Witard OC, Phil A, Wallis GA, Baar K, Tipton KD. (2017). Branched-Chain Amino Acid Ingestion Stimulates Muscle Myofibrillar Protein Synthesis following Resistance Exercise in Humans. Front Physiol. 7;8 :390, 2017
- Churchward-Venne TA1, Breen L, Di Donato DM, Hector AJ, Mitchell CJ, Moore DR, Stellingwerff T, Phillips SM. (2013) Leucine supplementation of a low-protein mixed macronutrient beverage enhances myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men: a double blind, randomized trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 99(2):276-86
- Mitchel CJ, Churchward-Venne TA, Cameron-Smith D, Phillips SM (2015). What is the relationship between the acute muscle protein synthesis response and changes in muscle mass? J Appl Physiol. (2015). 118: 495-497
- Jackman SR, Witard OC, Jeukendrup AE, Tipton KD. (2010) Branched-chain amino acid ingestion can ameliorate soreness from eccentric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 42(5):962-70, 2010.
- Van Dusseldorp TA, Escobar KA, Johnson KE, Stratton T, Moriarty T, Cole N… Mermier CM. (2018). Effect of branch-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery following acute eccentric exercise. 1;10
- Cinteneo HP, Arent MA, Antonia J, Arent SM. (2018). Effects of protein supplementation on performance and recovery in resistance and endurance training. Front Nutr. 11;5:83
- Gorissen, S. H., Crombag, J. J., Senden, J. M., Waterval, W. H., Bierau, J., Verdijk, L. B., & van Loon, L. J. (2018). Protein content and amino acid composition of commercially available plant-based protein isolates. Amino acids, 50(12), 1685-1695.
- Matu J, Gonzalez JT, Isopoglou T, Duckworth L, Deighton K. (2018). The effects of hypoxia on hunger perceptions, appetite- related hormone concentrations and energy intake: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Appetite (2018). 125:98-108
- Atherton PJ, Etheridge T, Watt PW, Wilkinson D, Selby A, Rankin D…Rennie MJ. (2010). Muscle full effect after oral protein: time-dependent concordance and discordance between muscle protein synthesis and mTORC1 signaling. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2010. 92(5): 1080-8
- Blomstrand, E., Hassmén, P., Ek, S., Ekblom, B., & Newsholme, E. A. (1997). Influence of ingesting a solution of branched‐chain amino acids on perceived exertion during exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 159(1), 41-49.
- Leahy, D. T., & Pintauro, S. J. (2013). Branched-chain amino acid plus glucose supplement reduces exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness in college-age females. ISRN nutrition, 2013.
- Shimomura, Y., Inaguma, A., Watanabe, S., Yamamoto, Y., Muramatsu, Y., Bajotto, G., … & Mawatari, K. (2010). Branched-chain amino acid supplementation before squat exercise and delayed-onset muscle soreness. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism, 20(3), 236-244.